AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAIN MODEL ADAPTED TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change and sea level rise cause extreme weather. adversely affecting people's livelihoods, especially in the Mekong Delta. There have been many programs to support the affected countries; So far. More than 100 countries around the world have received funding from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) to help farmers and businesses cope with climate change. With the development of smart agricultural models based on local climate smarrt agriculture (LCSA) in response, many development models have been confirmed to be suitable to ensure household income and emission reduction targets in the context of complex climate change.
Located downstream of the Mekong River, the Mekong Delta is affected by climate change. In the face of difficulties, challenges of sea level rise and prolonged drought, farmers have many innovative ways to develop production, constantly improve income and improve life. Talking with Dr. Hoang Xuan Truong, director of the South-South Cooperation Regional Project to replicate the climate change adaptation chain (SSCVC) initiative of the built models, we know that farmers in Tra Vinh and Ben Tre provinces have a practical way of doing things, It's highly effective, so let's talk about it.
Về mô hình nuôi tôm càng xanh toàn đực trong ruộng
lúa ở tỉnh Bến Tre
Brackish shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta has an important position in aquaculture. Here there are combined shrimp-rice, shrimp-forest rotation systems on a large area, farmers often raise a crop of tiger shrimp during the year. When the rainy season comes, people focus on salt washing, renovating the land to grow rice on shrimp land. With the traditional way of doing, shrimp farming income is not high because tiger shrimp is not suitable for the farming environment.
Under the impact of climate change and sea level rise; The aquaculture environment is increasingly grim, requiring rapid adaptation measures, from the fact that in An Dien district of Ben Tre province, some households after many trials, have chosen the form of raising crayfish all male interspersed in rice fields. Crayfish are suitable for freshwater environments, but can live and grow well in water environments with salinity of up to 10%o.Thanks to the suitable rice field environment for crayfish to grow. This form of farming has brought tangible economic efficiency. The combination of breeding male crayfish in rice fields not only brings high economic efficiency. But also help farmers create clean shrimp and rice products.
Talking to the wealthy people in the region, we know that the cultivation of rice on shrimp farming land has improved the water environment, thereby having suitable food sources for shrimp farming while helping to reduce harmful pathogens.
Usually, in early August every year. Shrimp farmers down to rice varieties, by December, harvesting rice is also the time to start harvesting shrimp. With the proportion of live shrimp reaching over 65%, after 6 groins, the average shrimp weight reaches 20 animals / kg. In 2019, with an average selling price of VND180,000 per kg, a shrimp farming family made a profit of over VND50 million.
In the context of increasing salt intrusion, from the reality of development in the region, many farmers in An Dien district have learned to follow this model. Speaking at the announcement of the report to replicate the price chain in adapting to climate change, many analysts said that the model of raising crayfish all over males in rice fields is an effective production model. With income and profit yielding the equivalent of raising shrimp and tiger shrimp in areas with suitable farming conditions, this shrimp farming model is suitable for fresh or salty waters in the dry season, especially where low salinity is not suitable for crab farming, shrimp card or tiger shrimp.
To reduce the labor of making their own feed, farmers can use omnivorous fish in combination with industrial feed. The cost of industrial feed is higher than homemade but the water quality in the farming field is easy to manage, less polluted with the environment.
hình nuôi dê sinh sản ở tỉnh Bến Tre
In the past ten years due to unusually dry weather and saltwater intrusion, many Ben Tre people have stopped growing rice to switch to cultivating seedlings that are resistant to other weather and sea level rise.
Raising semi-wild goats of the people of the sea. Photo: Huynh Phuc Hau - VNA
đối phó với BĐKH và xâm nhập mặn, Chính quyền và nhiều người dân địa phương đã tìm
các giải pháp thích ứng. Trong đó, chuyển đổi đất trồng lúa kém hiệu quả sang
trồng cỏ chăn nuôi gia súc được nhóm hợp tác nuôi dê sinh sản ở ấp Xẻo Sâu xã
Tân Hưng huyện Ba tri lựa chọn. Với sự hỗ trợ của Dự án Thích ứng với
biến đổi khí hậu vùng đồng bằng sông Cửu Long (AMD) do Quỹ quốc tế Phát triển
Nông nghiệp (IFAD) tài trợ. nhóm hợp tác này đã thu được nhiều thành công
The team built 19 camp bells with an average area of 9m2/barn. The team members bought Boer goats with the ability to gain weight quickly, adapting to captivity for meat for breeding. Goats raised in Shoo Deep have a high vitality, easy to raise in changing climate conditions. Goats are omnivorous, easy to feed and when needed can drink salty water up to 7%o. The group took advantage of 6,700m2 of inefficient rice production land of members to grow western hair grass, Thai green elephant grass, lemongrass grass, milk grass ... combine with the source of naturally growing apes in abandoned canals and soils to supplement the source of food for goats. Up to now, the breeding goat herd of the cooperative has increased from 38 to 100, on average, each household has 5 breeding sows. To expand the herd of goats. the group has leased land, expanded the area of grass cultivation to over 25,000m2 and the area of the barn has also increased to 25 m2 / household. Today, many salt-tolerant grasses grow year-round on a salinity of 10-15%o, even the west hair grass does not reduce its ability to grow when the salinity is up to 20%o, so the source of feed for goats is not limited.
The deep shovel goat farming cooperation group consists of members who are poor and near-poor households. The model of goat farming here proved suitable for poor farmers in the agricultural value chain adapted to climate change in the Mekong Delta. With the ability to take advantage of livestock waste, goat manure can be used as crop fertilizer or sold to households in the region. Goat farming, in addition to the impact of economic development, also contributes to keeping the environment clean. According to the analysis of experts in the South South SSCVC cooperation project, the household's goat breeding revenue reached VND 40.2 million per year with a profit of VND10.8 million, achieving a profit margin of 26% and household income of over VND 22 million a year.
Acknowledging the ability of the model to replicate the value chain initiative adapted to climate change, iPAD experts said that goats are fishing animals, raising good children, quickly recovering investment capital and can start farming on a small scale. Thanks to the lower initial cost compared to cattle breeding; on the other hand, eat a variety of forage green foods such as grass. leaves with high feed use efficiency; Levee farming can expand rapidly in poor farmers, affected by climate change and sea level rise.
Goat food does not compete for food with humans; Goats adapt to many different climates, few diseases should be easy to feed. In recent years, the demand for goat meat and milk has increased; Expanding carded goat breeding is a development direction in transforming production structures in response to climate change in the Mekong Delta.
hình tưới nước tiết kiệm ở tỉnh Trà Vinh.
In the Mekong Delta, prolonged dryness and salinity have adversely impacted the quality and output of agriculture. Local authorities and residents have been looking for solutions. Among the options, emerging are planting native trees, short-term trees or drought-tolerant trees; use organic humus, cinnamon feces and covering to improve soil fertility and reduce the need for irrigation water. One of the appropriate solutions is to use an economical irrigation system to optimize water use.
In complex climate change conditions, the amount of irrigation water is increasingly scarce in the dry season, the storage of water and the use of conventional irrigation systems have not met the demand. Finding suitable ways to save irrigation water is an urgent requirement when households want to grow an additional batch of vegetables on land areas that are limited in the dry season.
From the demands of a large number of residents in the region, in the implementation of the Climate Change Appropriate project in the Mekong Delta (AMD), with the aim of improving the adaptability capacity of the community to enhance the ability to respond to climate change and help farmers improve their knowledge, creating a solid foundation in production, AMD Tra Vinh Province has supported the Successful Cooperation Group to invest in grid-connected solar power system with rotating pressed pump system and control equipment, On this basis, the cooperation group has mobilized households to contribute to buy water meters to calculate the cost of pump operation, soft pipe aquids and sprinkler heads. The 12 members of the Successful Cooperation Group have become contributors and jointly operate the equipped system.
With the making of water storage, the grid-connected solar power system and centralized press pressure pump have worked, helping to save irrigation water and importantly, the region has overcome the subsidence caused by the previous groundwater extraction well.
Analyzing the economic benefits, the researchers found that, on the area of peanut land, the yield when there is an irrigation system has reached more than 2 feet of fresh tubers / ha in the Spring peanut crop, bringing added value over 20 million VND; The use of rain sprinkler systems helps save water sources. As a result, the irrigation area has increased, the cooperation group has ensured enough irrigation water sources for 16 hectares, not to mention the irrigation system reduces 10 workers / ha / crop compared to conventional irrigation. In addition, when using the solar power system in harmony with the grid, households also reduced 5 million VND / ha of electricity, in the winter, there is a revenue from electricity supply up to 70 million / year.
From the successful work of the Successful Cooperation Group, the researchers draw, the investment of grid-in-grid solar power systems, centralized press pressure pumps has helped reduce investment and operating costs for agricultural production in climates punctuated by climate change and sea level rise, Due to the relatively large total initial investment cost, it is necessary to have support from the state or project programs for poor farmers, for many other regions in the country, it is possible to recommend people to conduct the digging of ponds to store water on a scale suitable to the area of arable land and the investment capacity of farmers.
Mô hình nuôi sò huyết
dưới tán cây rừng ở huyện Duyên Hải tỉnh Trà Vinh
Brackish waters have long been used by the people of the Mekong Delta to take advantage of aquaculture, however, farming in the form of quang canh, dispersed and fragmented, economic efficiency is not high. In recent years, due to climate change and sea level rise, many areas of rice and crop land are inefficient, undeclared water surface land has been used by the people to inaugurate aquaculture areas. In which it emerges quite new is the model of raising blood scallops under the forest canopy. In these models, people have taken advantage of the dumps. where the riverbed is adjacent to mangrove forests to feed oysters.
In 2017, to help people cultivate coastal mangrove aquaculture, diversify farming and create sustainable livelihoods in unpredictable climate change conditions, Tra Vinh Provincial Agricultural Extension Center has cooperated with the mekong delta climate change adaptation project (AMD) to establish a cooperative group to raise oysters under mangrove trees in Dinh Old Village of Long Khanh district. Coast.
The establishment of a cooperative group for oyster farming on the basis of taking advantage of mangrove forests does not affect the natural environment, does not harm the mangrove area; On the contrary, it has contributed significantly to the preservation of land, keeping forests. The model is assessed to bring high economic efficiency, sustainability and suitable for climate change conditions. Talking to people in the region, members of the clam farming cooperation group said that the use of mangroves on the edge of mangrove forests raising blood shells does not affect the natural environment and the existing forest area but also contributes positively to land retention and forest keeping. Coordinating the preservation and exploitation of the advantages of mangrove forests through aquaculture, developing ecotourism also helps to increase revenues to reinvest in the protection and reforestation activities and minimize the negative impact of climate change.
Aquaculture under mangrove trees
Analyzing the effectiveness, people in the region and analysts found that the farming season usually begins in May and June every year. Raising blood scallops under the forest canopy does not cost much, mainly the initial square creation and the annual purchase of stocking breeds. The original breeds are kept in the net, when reaching a weight of 600-700 animals / kg to release into the pond. After 6.7 months of caring for oysters reaching 80 to 100con/kg to start harvesting, if winning the season with 3000 m2 of farmed relics, each harvest is about 17 tons of commercial shellfish; With the family selling from 100 to 110 thousand VND / kg, the farmer can generate revenue up to 170 million / crop.
Through the specific activities of the model. The researchers draw, raising blood scallops under mangrove trees requires uncomplicated techniques, simple farming, just experience in the estuary and knowledge to ensure temperature and mangroves; Production can start from a source of not much investment.
In today's life, blood scallops are believed to be a source of highly nutritious food, large market demand with relatively stable prices. In the context of climate change and sea level rise, raising blood scallops under mangrove trees is a possible direction to expand development to contribute to solving livelihoods and raising incomes for the majority of the poor, To replicate this good way, it is necessary to establish cooperation models to support the poor.